Carps form the mainstay of aquaculture practices in India, contributing over 85% of the total aquaculture production. Out of 266 carp species available in the Indian region, about 34 carp species are economical and are produced mainly from capture fishery, while less than 10 carp species are produced from both the culture and capture fisheries in the country. India is called the “Carp Country” since carps have been cultured since ancient times and been a relished delicacy in the country.
The carps which are native to the Indus-Ganges River Systems/ Indo-Gangetic Plains of India are referred to as the Gangetic Carps / Indian Major Carps (IMC), comprising of Catla, Rohu and Mrigal that contribute 60% of total Carps production. The carps that were introduced from other countries are referred to as Exotic Carps such as Silver Carp, Grass Carp and Common Carp.
Besides the Major Carps, there are also smaller carps often referred to as Minor Carps such as Reba (Cirrhinus reba), Bata (Labeo bata), Fringe-lipped carp (Labeo fimbriatus), Calbasu (Labeo calbasu), white carp (Cirrhinus cirrhosus) and Cauvery carp (Labeo kontius).