The Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macro brachium Rosenberger, popularly known as SCAMPI, is the most important species. It is native to the Indo-West Pacific region, from India through Southeast Asia to Northern Australia. It has been introduced to several countries across the mglobe for aquaculture purpose. Males and females have different growth rates; the males exhibit heterogenous individual growth. Among males there are three different morphotypes (Small Males, Orange Claws and Blue Claws) which display social hierarchy. All three types of males are sexually active, and females that have undergone premating moult will pair with any type male to reproduce. A Blue Claw male protects the female until their shells have hardened but the other two show no such behaviour.
The second largest freshwater palaemonid prawn, Macro brachium malcolmsonii, also called the Indian River Prawn/Monsoon River Prawn/Godavari Prawn, has great potential for aquaculture development in the inland waters of the country. Freshwater prawn farming in India developed during 1999, after marine shrimp culture encountered disease problems