• Learning is a continuous process and no system is perfect itself and there is always scope of correction and or perfection in it. Development of IFS model at PDFSR, Modipuram was first effort made in the direction of farming system research and that too in an integrated manner in western plain zone of Uttar Pradesh. No doubt, the IFS studies generated significant findings but even then there were so many limitations which if corrected can make the programme in future more effective and remunerative. Some of the important lessons learnt from the study are given below.


  • The farmers are advised to allocate the land under crops in such a way that all the family needs of food (cereals, pulses, oilseeds, sugar) and year round availability of green fodders can be ensured from their own fields and farmer do not depend much on

  • The left out land can either be allotted under high value low volume cash crops and/or other low cost enterprises considered or found feasible and viable under small farm

  • For sustaining soil fertility, inclusion of legumes and green manure crops in crop sequences is a must and due consideration may be given to fit them in different crop


  • To enrich nutritional standards of family food and regular income, establishment of a nutritional orchard unit is strongly recommended for small farm
  • Ensure procurement of planting/seed materials from reputed firms only. Under small farm conditions, growing of vegetables and flowers are not desirable because of market and high labour requirement. However, regular home requirements of vegetables can be met by promoting kitchen gardening and intercropping vegetables in between the row spaces of fruit trees under nutritional orchard.
  • The farmers should also ensure timely gap filling caused by mortality of plants (if any).
  • To get regular fruits and income, the farmers are advised to grow a mix of different type of fruit species.


  • Irrespective number and breed of the animals, dairy is an integral part of any of the farming system adopted by the farmers in Regular supply of milk from the animal unit is a pre requisite. To maintain this purchase of animals should be made in phases and not at a time.
  • Small farm holders should purchase a better adaptive breed with high milk yield only so that he can escape danger of several diseases and disorders.
  • To economize the production of milk, round the year green fodder availability should be
  • Balanced feed and mineral mixtures etc. should also be provided to avoid irregularity in production as well as reproduction.
  • The milch animals should be inseminated three to four months after parturition to avoid longer dry period. It is also advised to take preventive measures against infectious diseases


  • Rearing of goat at small land holdings was not found desirable because of poor health and high mortality in goat animals under stall This was because of less space and no grazing which caused high infestation of internal and external parasites resulting in weakness, indigestion and high mortality.
  • Under stall feeding, the animals could not get desired environment and varied type of vegetation as in grazing conditions which are most ideal for rearing

Bee Keeping

  • The bee keeping is also not found a suitable enterprise for small farm The enterprise required round the year availability of flowers for optimum growth and production and suits well for horticultural areas which generally are owned by large farmers.
  • It is not possible to grow crops with flowers round the year at a location and the farmers maintaining large number of bee boxes transport the bee boxes to different places for getting regular supply of nectar. This is not possible with small land
  • The enterprise was badly suffered due to heavy attack of a eight legs insect called Baravo mite. A blanket recommendation therefore, cannot be given in this
  • The bee colonies are very much sensitive to application of insecticides in field and plantation crops used by the farmers of nearby fields, if not by the owner of the apiary
  • The bee boxes are attacked by ants, lizard and so many insects and need regular cleaning.


  • Farming systems under small farm holders can only be made profitable if farmers adopt a conservative approach at all stages of farming. For this he has to utilize each and every inches of land for raising suitable field and plantation crops, select low cost viable enterprises for diversification, recycle all farm wastes and crop residues within the system itself and make productive use of farm boundaries and waste lands if any. Further, farmers are also advice to make use of renewable sources of energy such as solar and biogas etc.