Papaya originated from southern Mexico, Central America, and northern South America. It is now cultivated in most tropical countries. It is highly sensitive to frost and water logging. In India, papaya is cultivated in states like Orissa, West Bengal, Kerala, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh ,Tamil Nadu and Gujarat. It is a potential fruit crop for commercial cultivation in Goa. Of late, few progressive farmers have started showing interest in cultivation of local and released varieties of papaya.

Land preparation

Field should be ploughed thoroughly and pits of size 60 should be dug out. After weathering, pits should be filled with top dug out soil along with 10kg FYM + 1kg Neem cake + 5 kg Rock phosphate + 1.5 kg MOP + 20-25 g of Trichoderma per pit

Sowing and nursery

Papaya is propagated normally through seeds. Seed rate: 500g/ha
Seeds should be treated with PGPR before sowing
Nursery bags should be filled with garden soil, FYM and sand in 1:1:1 ratio. Addition of Trichoderma @2-3 g/bag will be beneficial. 3-4 seeds should be sown per bag for dioecious varieties
2-3 seeds per bag for gynodioecious varieties
Regular watering is essential.


Normal spacing: 1.8 x 1.8 m
High density planting1.3m x1.3m
For dwarf variety: 1.2 x 1.2 m
Seedlings of 35-40 days age are transplanted into pits. Proper staking with bamboo poles is essential to avoid lodging. Mulching of basin and thatching with coconut leaves are essential practices to be followed.

Nutrient management

After a month of planting, 5 kg 19 : 19: 19 and 2.5 kg urea / ha need to be applied through drip fertigation. After 15 days the same dose should be repeated. After two months of planting basin should be made around the plant and fertiliser at the rate 250 kg DAP, 500 kg neem cake and 188 kg urea/ha should be applied.
After 3 months (250 kg DAP + 500 kg Neem cake + 750 kg MOP + 25 kg micronutrients mixture) should be added.
From 4th month to 6th month drip fertigation was practised as follows:
(a) At the beginning of 4th month 12 : 61: 0 – 30 kg /ha
(b) After 15 days 30 kg/ha 0 : 0 : 50 mixed Fertiliser
(c) 15 days after that, 30 kg/ ha 13 : 0: 45
(d) 6th month 30 kg/ha 0 : 0 : 50
(e) 15 days after that 30 kg / ha 12 : 61 : 0
(f) At 7th month again 250 kg DAP + 188kg MOP + 25 kg micronutrients + 37.5 kg S/ha should be applied on ring.
Foliar spray
Spray zinc sulphate (0.5%), ferrous sulphate (0.2%), copper sulphate (0.2%) and borax (0.1%) at 3, 5 and 7 th month after planting.

Water management

May: every day 2 hrs drip irrigation.
June-Oct: Monsoons
Nov-Mar: Once in 4 days for 2 hrs
April: once in two days for 3 hrs

Weed management

Weeding as and when required to keep field clean

Intercultural operations

Sex expression and thinning: In dioecious varieties, male and female plants segregate in 1:1 ratio. Retention of one male plant for 10-12 female plants is sufficient. Other male plants should be removed. Male plants are precocious in flowering and can be easily identified by the long and pendulous flowering stalks. In gynodioecious varieties, one plant should be maintained per pit.

Insect Pest

Mealy bugs


Papaya Ring spot virus Papaya Mosaic Virus


One tree can yield on an average 100 fruits, each weighing 1-3 kg based on variety. After 2½ years the papaya plants should be removed and some other suitable crop to be grown and then again papaya plantation can be taken up in the same land.

Post harvest management

Jam, Tooti fruit etc